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Immune Modulation

With a New, Clinically Proven Immunomodulation and Anti-inflammatory Spray Product

By John I Buhmeyer, MS

Re-printed from CNR Publications
Colostrum, nature's first food, contains an amazing variety of immune factors, growth factors and nutrients that help the newborn get a healthy start in life. What science has also discovered is that the ingredients in colostrum are also good for grownups (including children).

It can help heal stomach and intestinal linings damaged by pain medication, alcohol and soft drink consumption, poor diet, stress or environmental toxins. It can help keep our immune system running at optimal levels, which is especially important in today's stressful world with new drug-resistant diseases appearing and a worsening environment. For example, a recent Italian study showed that supplementation with whole colostrum was more than three times as effective as immunization in preventing the flu in both normal healthy subjects and high risk cardiovascular subjects.

Now there is a new immunomodulatory product concentrates the essence of colostrum's immune factors into an easy-to-take spray that will help balance your immune system so that it functions at optimal levels to protect you and your loved ones. The essence of this exciting new product is PRP (Proline-Rich Polypeptides). PRP are peptides – short strings of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) – that function as intercellular signaling molecules. The PRP in colostrum are specifically designed to modulate the activity of the immune system, stimulating its activity when needed to fight off an infection or quelling its activity to prevent tissue damage once the infection has been defeated.

PRP in colostrum consist of a number of different peptides which can be separated by gel chromatography into three distinct classes. One of these, PRP3, is the most immunologically active. Modern protein fractionation methods allow this fraction to be isolated as the main ingredient, providing the maximum immunologic punch at a fraction of the cost of whole colostrum.

PRP acts as a hormone in the thymus gland by stimulating thymocytes (lymphocytes that originate in the thymus gland) to differentiate and become activated as either helper or suppressor T cells , , , , , . What is unique about the action of PRP is that this effect is reversible , , . Helper T cells present foreign antigen (such as a protein from a virus or bacteria) to B cells, lymphocytes which originate in the bone marrow and which produce antibodies that are specific to the antigens presented to them by the helper T cells. Helper T cells also help produce memory T cells, lymphocytes that retain the memory of the antigen to shorten response time in case of reinfection.

Suppressor T cells, on the other hand, deactivate other lymphocytes to "turn off" the immune response after an infection is under control. This is important because if the response is not turned off, normal tissue can be damaged. Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or diabetes type 1, are characterized by overactive immune systems that attack the tissues of the body. PRP has shown promise against autoimmune diseases in preliminary trials , .

PRP is also a potent stimulator of other immune cells in response to an infection. It induces the growth and differentiation of B cells , increases the permeability of the blood vessels in the skin to allow hunter/killer cells to move into the tissues, and induces leukocyte (white blood cell) proliferation , . It also induces the differentiation and maturation of monocytes and macrophages, cells which penetrate the connective tissue outside the blood vessels in search of pathogens .

PRP has been shown to be a potent stimulator of natural killer (NK) cell activity. Dr. Daryl See, MD, Director of the Bioassay Laboratory at the Institute of Longevity Medicine, conducted a comparative study of 196 dietary supplements which claimed immune system enhancement, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and antioxidant action, bovine colostrum was shown to promote significant NK cytotoxicity . Later studies by Dr. See showed that transfer factor (PRPs) increased NK cell cytotoxicity by up to 400%. Among other natural products which increase NK cell cytotoxicity, none exceeded a 50% increase . Another study by Dr. See showed that a combination of nutraceutical products, including transfer factor (PRPs), increased the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in patients with late-stage cancer .

The mechanism through which PRP acts includes the stimulation of immune cells to produce various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines are also small peptides and proteins that control the immune response. PRP can stimulate the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-A), which is the cytokine that controls the entire inflammatory cascade of cytokines that are secreted when the immune system is mobilized to fight infection, and gamma interferon (INF-γ), another major cytokine that interferes with the ability of pathogens, especially viruses, to replicate. PRP has been shown to stimulate the production of INF-I3 in white blood cells , peritoneal cells , and cells of the placenta and amniotic membrane . The so-called immune cascade is a complex series of chemical events that mobilize immune cells to move to the site of the infection (such as a wound) and attack any pathogens they find.

PRP also has the ability to stimulate the production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood cells – the very cells that would be actively engaged in fighting an infection. Again, this reflects the ability of PRP to respond to the immunological needs of the body by modulating the immune response. An example of how fine it can tune the system was demonstrated in an experiment where mice were exposed to Herpes simplex virus (HSV). When exposed, the mice produced large quantities of INF-γ, IL-2, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is produced in response to an infection, and small amounts of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. However, if the mice were first exposed to transfer factor (another name for PRP), the mice responded to HSV by producing large amounts of INF-γ but no IL-2 . In blood cultures, PRP stimulates the production of INF-α, INF-γ, IL-6 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) and IL-10 .

PRP provides immunity to a number of viruses, including HSV , , , Epstein-Barr virus (a type of herpes virus that causes infectious mononucleosis) , HIV , measles , and others , . It also has antiviral activity against several viruses, Epstein-Barr and Human Herpes Virus-6 (HHV-6) known to be associated with autoimmune diseases , .

The use of PRP in clinical situations to treat dangerous infectious diseases is just being explored. PRP has been used with AIDS patients in various African countries. Through its immunomodulatory effect, PRP oral spray products boosted T cells (CD4+) levels to normal or near-normal levels in nearly all patients studied associated with a complete remission of AIDS symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth. Weight gains of up to 5% were also noted. In fact, those taking PRP performed much better in terms of quality of life than those on antiretroviral drugs .

The potential for clinical use of PRP is exciting. Bird flu, for example, kills patients by eliciting a so-called "cytokine storm" caused by dysregulation of normal cytokine regulation by the virus that actually kills the victim by drowning in their own fluids . PRP could help restore cytokine regulation and restore homeostasis.

PRP may also prove useful in the treatment of allergies and asthma. In a recent Russian study, guinea pigs were given an injection of ovalbumin which causes them to develop bronchial spasms which often prove fatal. When PRP was also given to the guinea pigs, fewer died, and the bronchial spasms in the others were less severe and of significantly shorter duration .

PRP is not species specific, meaning that PRP from cow's colostrum is just as effective in humans as PRP from human colostrum . PRP is concentrated out of the highest quality organically produced bovine colostrum that is collected fresh year-round from cows living in the Southwest United States and processed in the only processing plant built from the ground up to process colostrum using state-of-the-art equipment. It is safe for all ages, including children. It is packaged as a convenient, easy to use spray. Three sprays three times a day is the normal dose.

Stay healthy the natural way by modulating your immune system to perform at its best.

  1. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Di Renzo A, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Pellegrini L, Del Boccio G, Fano F, Ledda A, Bottari A, Ricci A, Stuard S, Vinciguerra G.  Prevention of influenza episodes with colostrum compared with vaccination in healthy and high-risk cardiovascular subjects: the epidemiologic study in San Valentino.  Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 13(2):130-136 (2007).  Colostrum proved to be three times more effective than vaccination in preventing influenza both in healthy subjects and high-risk cardiovascular patients, and is very cost-effective.
  2. Staroscik K, Janusz M, Zimecki M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J.  Immunologically active nonapeptide fragment of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: amino acid sequence and immunoregulatory properties.  Molecular Immunology 20(12):1277-1282 (1983).  A nine peptide fragment from sheep PRP has immunoregulatory properties similar to whole PRP.  The amino acid sequence of this fragment differs from known immunomodulators.
  3. Janusz M, Staroscik K, Zimecki M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J.  A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) with immunoregulatory properties isolated from ovine colostrum. Murine thymocytes have on their surface a receptor specific for PRP.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 34(4):427-436 (1986).  PRP has immunoregulatory properties.  It induces the maturation of thymocytes into mature helper or suppressor T cells. 
  4. Janusz M, Lisowski J.  Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) – an immunomodulatory peptide from ovine colostrum.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 41(5-6):275-279 (1993).  PRP increases the permeability of blood vessels in the skin and causes the differentiation of thymocytes into mature T cells.
  5. Zimecki M, Staroscik K, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Wieczorek Z.  The inhibitory activity of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the immune response to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 31(6):895-903 (1983).  PRP administered to a test animal before immunization with PVP inhibits the immune response to this antigen.  PRP did this by increasing the activity of suppressor T cells and by increasing the generation of new suppressor T cells.
  6. Wieczorek Z, Zimecki M, Spiegel K, Lisowski J, Janusz M.  Differentiation of T cells into helper cells from immature precursors: identification of a target cell for a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP).  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 37(3-4):313-322 (1989).  The precursors of helper T cells belong to a minor thymocyte subset bearing the Thy-1 +/-, H-2+, L3T4-, lyt 2-, CD3- phenotype.  PRP induced the production of antigens consistent with mature helper T cells.
  7. Zimecki M, Pierce CW, Janusz M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J.  Proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP): PRP mimics mitogenic activity of IL-1.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 35(3):339-349 (1987).  At doses of 0.01-50 μg/ml, PRP augmented the proliferative response of T cells to concanavalin A in a similar fashion to IL-1.  Above 10 μg/ml, PRP induced proliferation of lymph node cells and splenocytes as well as T cells from the lymph nodes.  It did not induce proliferation of B cells from lymph nodes however.
  8. Zimecki M, Janusz M, Staroscik K, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J.  Immunological activity of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 26(1-6):23-29 (1978).  PRP increased the permeability of blood vessels in the skin and also stimulates or suppresses the immune response depending on the magnitude of the response.
  9. Zimecki M, Lisowski J, Hraba T, Wieczorek Z, Janusz M, Staroscik K.  The effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the humoral immune response. II. PRP induces differentiation of helper cells from glass-nonadherent thymocytes (NAT) and suppressor cells from glass-adherent thymocytes (GAT).  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 32(2):197-201 (1984).  PRP has the ability to induce differentiation of both helper and suppressor T cells.
  10. Lisowski J, Wieczorek Z, Janusz M, Zimecki M.  Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) from ovine colostrum. Bi-directional modulation of binding of peanut agglutinin, resistance to hydrocortisone, and helper activity in murine thymocytes.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 36(4):381-393 (1988).  PRP has a regulatory effect on the immune response.  It can cause bi-directional modulation of surface markers and function on T cells from mice.  It can reduce binding of peanut agglutinin to PNA+ T cells and increase the binding of peanut agglutinin to PNA- cells.  This effect can be reversed by a second application of PRP.  It is also able to transform cortisone-resistant T cells to cortisone-sensitive cells and vice versa.  Helper T cells initially treated with PRP became helper cells but were transformed into suppressor T cells following a second treatment.  This kind of immunoregulatory activity is unique among known immunoregulators.
  11. Zimecki M, Hraba T, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Wieczorek Z.  Effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the development of hemolytic anemia and survival of New Zealand black (NZB) mice.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 39(5-6):461-7 (1991).  PRP given to New Zealand black mice showing symptoms of hemolytic anemia significantly lowered positive Coombs´ reaction and prolonged the mean age of the mice.  Results suggest that PRP may induce suppressor T cells that act to control the disease, which is an autoimmune disease, and indicates PRP may have therapeutic value in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
  12. Zimecki M, Artym J.  [Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk] Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej 59:309-323 (2005).  Colostrum and milk are rich in peptides and proteins which play an active role in innate immunity.  Lactoferrin has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and antitumor activities.  It helps protect the intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth, and accelerates the recovery of immune system function in immunocompromised animals.  PRP has a variety of immunotropic functions, including the promotion of T cell maturation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders.
  13. Julius MH, Janusz M, Lisowski J.  A colostral protein that induces the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes.  Journal of Immunology 140(5):1366-371 (1988).  PRP induced resting B cells and supported their progression through the cell cycle to form mature B cells.  It had the same action on splenocytes.
  14. Kruzel ML Janusz M, Lisowski J, Fischleigh RV, Georgiades JA.  Towards an understanding of biological role of colostrinin peptides.  Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 17(3):379-389 (2001).  PRP (colostrinin) is a potent inducer of leukocyte proliferation and of certain cytokines.
  15. Boldogh I, Liebenthal D, Hughes TK, Juelich TL, Georgiades JA, Kruzel ML, Stanton GJ.  Modulation of 4HNE-mediated signaling by proline-rich peptides from ovine colostrum.  Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 20(2):125-134 (2003).  PRP, also known as colostrinin, induces mitogenic stimulation as well as a variety of cytokines in peripheral leukocytes.  It also possess antioxidant activity in pheochromocytoma (P12) cells, a cancer cell line used for in vitro studies.  PRP was shown to reduce the amount of 4HNE-protein adducts, reduce intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, inhibit 4HNE-mediated glutathione depletion, and inhibit 4HNE-induced activation of the molecular signal cascade which results in the production of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in P12 cells.  This shows that PRP acts as both an antioxidant and a molecular signaling device.
  16. Kubis A, Marcinkowska E, Janusz M, Lisowski J.  Studies on the mechanism of action of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP): effect on the stage of cell differentiation.  Peptides 26(11):2188-2192 (2005).  PRP affects the differentiation and maturation of cells of the monocyte/ macrophage lineage and may regulate in this way the inflammatory processes in which these cells participate.
  17. See DM, Gurnee K, LeClair M.  An In Vitro Screening Study of 196 Natural Products for Toxicity and Efficacy.  Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association 2(1):25-39 (1999).  A comparative study of 196 natural products showed that many demonstrated toxicity and cytochrome p450 activity (indicative of liver toxicity) while having little or no beneficial action.  Some natural products, including Echinacea, and glyconutrient-containing products, showed the highest degree of NK cell stimulation.  Bovine colostrum showed significant enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity.
  18. See DM.  Transfer Factor testing – transfer factor study with 20 cancer patients.   20 cancer patients (levels 3 and 4) with average life expectancy of 3.7 months received 9 capsules of Transfer Factor Plus along with other general nutrients.  After 8 months, 16 of the 20 were still alive and were either in remission, improving or stabilized.  Baseline for NK cell activity was 6.4.  After 4 weeks, it increased to 25.7 and after 6 months to 27.6, an increase of 400%.
  19. See D, Mason S, Roshan R.  Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and natural killer cell (NK) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancers.  Immunological Investigations 31(2):137-153 (2002).  A combination of natural products was shown to increase the cytotoxicity of NK cell TNF while decreasing DNA damage in patients with late-stage cancer.  20 patients with stage IV end-stage cancer were evaluated using Transfer Factor Plus (3 tabs 3 times/day), IMU-Plus (40 gm/day), IV (50-100 gm/day) and oral (12 gm/day) ascorbic acid, Agaricus Blazeii Murill teas 10 gm/day), Immune Modulator Mix, nitrogenated soy extract, and Andrographis Paniculata (500 mg twice daily).  The 16 survivors of the study showed significantly higher NK function and TNF levels over baseline.  Side effects were limited to occasional diarrhea and nausea, while quality of life improved for all survivors over the six month period of the study.
  20. Inglot AD, Janusz M, Lisowski J.  Colostrinine: a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum is a modest cytokine inducer in human leukocytes.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 44(4):215-224 (1996).  Colostrinine (PRP) acts as a cytokine inducer in humans, inducing the production of interferon and tumor necrosis factor in human peripheral blood leukocytes in culture.
  21. Blach-Olszewska Z, Janusz M.  Stimulatory effect of ovine colostrinine (a proline-rich polypeptide) on interferons and tumor necrosis factor production by murine resident peritoneal cells.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 45(1):43-47 (1997).  Colostrinine (PRP) from sheep colostrum was found to modulate the production of interferon-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cultures of mouse cells, indicating it may function as a cytokine.
  22. Domaraczenko B, Janusz M, Orzechowska B, Jarosz W, Blach-Olszewska Z.  Effect of proline rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum on virus replication in human placenta and amniotic membrane at term; possible role of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha.  Placenta 20(8):695-701 (1999).  PRP stimulated the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in placental and amniotic membrane cultures resistant to VSV, while its effect on sensitized cultures was negligible.  This effect was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies.  This indicates that TNF may be a mediator of virus stimulation by PRP.
  23. Alvarez-Thull L, Kirkpatrick CH.  Profiles of cytokine production in recipients of transfer factors.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):55-59 (1996).  Cell cultures from mice responded to HSV infection by secreting large amounts of IL-2 and INF-γ, modest amounts of IL-10, and no IL-4.  The same cells responded to concanavalin A and HSV in a similar manner, but instead of IL-2, they produced large amounts of TNF-A, showing that TF (i.e., PRP) treatment selectively affects cytokine production depending on antigenic stimulation.
  24. Zablocka A, Janusz M, Rybka K, Wirkus-Romanowska I, Kupryszewski G, Lisowski J.  Cytokine-inducing activity of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) from ovine colostrum and its active nonapeptide fragment analogs.  European Cytokine Network 12(3):462-467 (2001).  PRP induces the production of INF-γ, TNF-A, IL-6 and IL-10 in human whole blood cultures.
  25. Pizza G, Meduri R, De Vinci C, Scorolli L, Viza D.  Transfer factor prevents relapses in herpes keratitis patients: a pilot study.  Biotherapy 8(1):63-68 (1994).  Use of HSV-specific transfer factor (PRP) reduced relapses in herpes ocular infections from 20.1 to 0.51.
  26. Pizza G, Viza D, De Vinci C, Palareti A, Cuzzocrea D, Fornarola V, Baricordi R.  Orally administered HSV-specific transfer factor (TF) prevents genital or labial herpes relapses.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):67-72 (1996).  Patients with genital or labial herpes received HSV-specific transfer factor (PRP) over a course of 6 months.  Controls experienced a relapse index (RI) of 61.2 while those in the experimental group had an RI of 21.4.
  27. Meduri R, Campos E, Scorolli L, De Vinci C, Pizza G, Viza D.  Efficacy of transfer factor in treating patients with recurrent ocular herpes infections.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):61-66 (1996).  Herpes-specific transfer factor (PRP) significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response to viral antigens in patients with recurrent ocular herpes infections, and significantly reduced relapses.
  28. Prasad U, bin Jalaludin MA, Rajadurai P, Pizza G, De Vinci C, Viza D, Levine PH.  Transfer factor with anti-EBV activity as an adjuvant therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pilot study.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):109-115 (1996).  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has an unsatisfactory overall survival rate.  An association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and NPC has been made, so it was hypothesized that anti-EBV transfer factor (PRP) might be used as an adjuvant treatment.  The survival rate of NPC patients receiving anti-EBV transfer factor was found to be significantly better than the control group.  Although the number of cases in the study was small, adjuvant immunotherapy with anti-EBV transfer factor is of considerable interest.
  29. Raise E, Guerra L, Viza D, Pizza G, De Vinci C, Schiattone ML, Rocaccio L, Cicognani M, Gritti F.  Preliminary results in HIV-1-infected patients treated with transfer factor (TF) and zidovudine (ZDV).  Biotherapy 9(1-3):49-54 (1996).  HIV-1 specific transfer factor (an alternative name for PRP) plus zidovudine (ZDV) was tested for efficacy in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC).  Patients receiving both transfer factor and ZDV experienced an increase in white blood cells, CD8+ lymphocytes and IL-2 levels over those receiving ZDV alone.
  30. Ferrer-Argote VE, Romero-Cabello R, Hernandez-Mendoza L, Arista-Viveros A, Rojo-Medina J, Balseca-Olivera F, Fierro M, Gonzalez-Constandse R.  Successful treatment of severe complicated measles with non-specific transfer factor.  In Vivo 8(4):555-557 (1994).  10 patients with severe complicated measles, a life-threatening illness, were treated with non-specific transfer factor.  8 of 9 patients experiencing respiratory failure recovered, while the single case of encephalitis was clear of neurologic sequelae within two weeks following the last dose.
  31. van Hooijdonk AC, Kussendrager KD, Steijns JM.  In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defense.  British Journal of  Nutrition  84(Suppl 1):S127-34 (2000).  Of the antimicrobial and antiviral components of bovine milk and colostrum, lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase that appear to be very promising for use in fish farming, animal husbandry, oral hygiene and functional foods.  Other components, particularly lipids and antimicrobial peptides, such as PRP, also show promise.
  32. Ushijima H, Dairaku M, Honnma H, Mukoyama A, Kitamura T.  [Immunoglobulin components and anti-viral activities in bovine colostrum]   Kansenshogaku Zasshi 64(3):274-279 (1990).  Bovine colostrum whey and immunoglobulins were compared.  IgA, IgG and IgM were all found in colostrum.  Neutralization activity against bovine, simian and human rotavirus were all found.
  33. Ablashi DV, Levine PH, De Vinci C, Whitman JE Jr, Pizza G, Viza D.  Use of anti HHV-6 transfer factor for the treatment of two patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Two case reports.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):81-86 (1996).  Transfer factor (PRP) specific to Human Herpes Virus-6 (HHV-6) significantly improved the clinical manifestations of one patient suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome, while another showed no improvement.
  34. De Vinci C, Levine PH, Pizza G, Fudenberg HH, Orens P, Pearson G, Viza D.  Lessons from a pilot study of transfer factor in chronic fatigue syndrome.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):87-90 (1996).  Transfer factor (PRP) was used in a placebo controlled study of 20 chronic fatigue patients.  Efficacy of the treatment was measured by clinical monitoring and testing for antibodies to Epstein-Barr and human herpes virus-6 antibodies.  Improvement was noted in 12 of the 20 patients.
  35. Keech A.  Unpublished data.  (2006).
  36. Chan MC, Cheung CY, Chui WH, Tsao SW, Nicholls JM, Chan YO, Chan RW, Long HT, Poon LL, Guan Y, Peiris JS.  Proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A (H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells.  Respiratory Research 6:135 (2005).  H5N1 influenza viruses are potent stimulators of proinflammatory cytokines chemokines in primary human respiratory epithelial cells.  This suggests that hyperinduction of cytokines may be part of the pathogenesis of the disease.
  37. Krylov A, Bogdanenko E, Bogush T, Zhdanov R.  The effects of Proline Rich Polypeptide Colostrum Extract treatment on wound healing in a murine skin injury model and assessment of its anti-allergic properties on system anaphylaxis in guinea pigs.  Fourth International Conference on Mechanisms of Action of Nutraceuticals, Tel Aviv, Israel.  In an experimental study done on mice, two wounds were made on the dorsal side of the mice.  In one group, one wound was treated with a PRP preparation and the other with distilled water.  In the other group, one wound was treated with distilled water, and the other was not treated.  The PRP extract improved wound healing about 22% better compared to the control group.  Results were similar to the effect of epidermal growth factor on healing.
  38. Khan A.  Non-specificity of transfer factor.  Annals of Allergy 38(5):320-322 (1977).  Transfer factor (PRP) was not found to be species-specific and was equally effective in a variety of species.