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Proline-rich Polypeptides (PRP)

Re-printed from CNR Publications
Includes transfer factor, colostrinin(e), dialyzable leukocyte extract (DLE)

Ablashi DV, Levine PH, De Vinci C, Whitman JE Jr, Pizza G, Viza D.  Use of anti HHV-6 transfer factor for the treatment of two patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Two case reports.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):81-6 (1996).  Transfer factor (PRP) specific to Human Herpes Virus-6 (HHV-6) significantly improved the clinical manifestations of one patient suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome, while another showed no improvement.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993763



Alvarez-Thull L, Kirkpatrick CH.   Profiles of cytokine production in recipients of transfer factors.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):55-59 (1996).  Cell cultures from mice responded to HSV infection by secreting large amounts of IL-2 and INF-γ, modest amounts of IL-10, and no IL-4.  The same cells responded to concanavalin A and HSV in a similar manner, but instead of IL-2, they produced large amounts of TNF-α, showing that TF (i.e. PRP) treatment selectively affects cytokine production depending on antigenic stimulation.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993758


An Examination of Immune Response Modulation in Humans by Ai/E10 ® Utilizing A Double Blind Study.  Immune Consultants, Inc., Tucson, Arizona (2001).  20 subjects, 10 men and 10 women, ranging in age from 32-61 participated in a double blind study in which 10 received DLE and the other 10 received placebo.  7 of the 10 receiving the DLE had a significant increase in three major immune markers: NK cell activity, TNF-α levels, and phagocytic index (PI), an indicator of macrophage activity.  Those receiving placebo had mixed results

Blach-Olszewska Z, Janusz M.  Stimulatory effect of ovine colostrinine (a proline-rich polypeptide) on interferons and tumor necrosis factor production by murine resident peritoneal cells.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 45(1):43-47 (1997).  Colostrinine (PRP) from sheep colostrum was found to modulate the production of interferon-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cultures of mouse cells, indicating it may function as a cytokine.

PubMed Reference    PMID:9090439


Boldogh I, Liebenthal D, Hughes TK, Juelich TL, Georgiades JA, Kruzel ML, Stanton GJ. Modulation of 4HNE-mediated signaling by proline-rich peptides from ovine colostrum.  Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 20(2):125-134 (2003).  PRP, also known as colostrinin, induces mitogenic stimulation as well as a variety of cytokines in peripheral leukocytes.  It also possess antioxidant activity in pheochromocytoma (P12) cells, a cancer cell line used for in vitro studies.  PRP was shown to reduce the amount of 4HNE-protein adducts, reduce intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, inhibit 4HNE-mediated glutathione depletion, and inhibit 4HNE-induced activation of the molecular signal cascade which results in the production of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in P12 cells.  This shows that PRP acts as both an antioxidant and a molecular signaling device.

PubMed Reference    PMID:12794306


Boldogh I, Aguilera-Aguirre L, Bacsi A, Choudhury BK, Saavedra-Molina A, Kruzel M. Colostrinin Decreases Hypersensitivity and Allergic Responses to Common Allergens.  International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 146(4):298-306 (2008).  Colostrinin (PRP) significantly reduced IgE and IgG1 production, airway eosinophilia, mucin production, and hypersensitivity induced by allergen extracts from ragweed pollen grains and house dust mites.  Colostrinin itself is non-allergenic.  This study supports the use of colostrinin for the prevention of allergic inflammation in humans.

PubMed Reference    PMID:18367843


Boldogh I, Kruzel ML.  Colostrinin: an oxidative stress modulator for prevention and treatment of age-related disorders.  Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 13(3):303-321 (2008).  Colostrinin (PRP) is known to have a stabilizing effect on cognitive function in Alzheimer's patients.  It does this by preventing the accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide, which has been linked to the progression of Alzheimer's.  It accomplishes this by modulating intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the regulation of glutathione metabolism, activity of antioxidant enzymes and improving the function of mitochondria.

PubMed Reference    PMID:18430998


De Vinci C, Levine PH, Pizza G, Fudenberg HH, Orens P, Pearson G, Viza D. Lessons from a pilot study of transfer factor in chronic fatigue syndrome.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):87-90 (1996).  Transfer factor (PRP) was used in a placebo controlled study of 20 chronic fatigue patients.  Efficacy of the treatment was measured by clinical monitoring and testing for antibodies to Epstein-Barr and human herpes virus-6 antibodies.  Improvement was noted in 12 of the 20 patients.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993764


Domaraczenko B, Janusz M, Orzechowska B, Jarosz W, Blach-Olszewska Z.  Effect of proline rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum on virus replication in human placenta and amniotic membrane at term; possible role of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha.  Placenta 20(8):695-701 (1999).  PRP stimulated the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in placental and amniotic membrane cultures resistant to VSV, while its effect on sensitized cultures was negligible.  This effect was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies.  This indicates that TNF may be a mediator of virus stimulation by PRP.

PubMed Reference    PMID:10527824


Effects of Oral Dietary Supplementation with Ai/E10 ® Upon Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activity in a Healthy Human Population.  Quantum Research, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona (2001).  Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract (DLE) was administered to 12 healthy male and female subjects aged 24-63.  Natural Killer (NK) cell activity was prior to initiation of the study and after completion of the study.  NK cell activity averaged 30 lytic units (LU) prior to the study and 101 LU following the study for an average increase of 207%.

Fernandez-Ortega, C, Dubed, M, Ruibal, O, Vilarrubia, OL, Menendez de San Pedro, JC, Navea, L, Ojeda, M, Arana, MJ.  Inhibition of in vitro HIV infection by dialysable leucocyte extracts.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):33-40 (1996).  A PRP extract from leukocytes inhibits HIV infection in MT-4 cell cultures.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993755


Ferrer-Argote VE, Romero-Cabello R, Hernandez-Mendoza L, Arista-Viveros A, Rojo-Medina J, Balseca-Olivera F, Fierro M, Gonzalez-Constandse R.  Successful treatment of severe complicated measles with non-specific transfer factor.  In Vivo 8(4):555-557 (1994).  10 patients with severe complicated measles, a life-threatening illness, were treated with non-specific transfer factor.  8 of 9 patients experiencing respiratory failure recovered, while the single case of encephalitis was clear of neurologic sequelae within two weeks following the last dose.

PubMed Reference    PMID:7893983


Hughes RA. Immunological treatment of multiple sclerosis.  Journal of Neurology 230(2):73-80 (1983).  Transfer factor (PRP) slowed the progression of the disease whereas interferon and levamisole did not.

PubMed Reference    PMID:6196462


Inglot AD, Janusz M, Lisowski J.  Colostrinine: a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum is a modest cytokine inducer in human leukocytes.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 44(4):215-224 (1996).  Colostrinine (PRP) acts as a cytokine inducer in humans, inducing the production of interferon and tumor necrosis factor in human peripheral blood leukocytes in culture.

PubMed Reference    PMID:9017161


Iseki M, Aoyama T, Koizumi Y, Ojima T, Murase Y, Osano M. [Effects of transfer factor on chronic hepatitis B in childhood]  Kansenshogaku Zasshi 63(12):1329-1332 (1989).  Nine children with chronic hepatitis B received transfer factor (PRPs) for 3-17 months.  Of these, 4 became hepatitis-B negative. After 22-48 months, 6 of the 9 were negative.  No side effects were observed.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2621386


Janusz M, Lisowski J. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP)–an immunomodulatory peptide from ovine colostrum.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 41(5-6):275-279 (1993).  PRP increases the permeability of blood vessels in the skin and causes the differentiation of thymocytes into mature T cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8010865


Janusz M, Staroscik K, Zimecki M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J. A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) with immunoregulatory properties isolated from ovine colostrum. Murine thymocytes have on their surface a receptor specific for PRP.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 34(4):427-436 (1986).  PRP has immunoregulatory properties.  It induces the maturation of thymocytes into mature helper or suppressor T cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID: 3026278


Julius MH, Janusz M, Lisowski J. A colostral protein that induces the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes.  Journal of Immunology 140(5):1366-1371 (1988).  PRP induced resting B cells and supported their progression through the cell cycle to form mature B cells.  It had the same action on splenocytes.

PubMed Reference    PMID:3257974


Keech A. (2006) Unpublished data.  In trials conducted in Nigeria and Kenya, a PRP spray was effective in restoring T cell levels to normal or near normal levels in AIDS patients.  Concomitantly, the AIDS symptoms also were alleviated in nearly all patients.

Khan A.  Non-specificity of transfer factor.  Annals of Allergy 38(5):320-322 (1977).

PubMed Reference    PMID:855952


Kirkpatrick CH. Structural nature and functions of transfer factors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 685:362-368 (1993). Transfer factors (PRP) are molecules that "educate" target cells to express cell-mediated immunity.  They cause the target cells to express delayed-type hypersensitivity to a given antigen (foreign protein) and produce cytokines which control the immune response.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8363241


Kruzel ML, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Fischleigh RV, Georgiades JA.   Towards an understanding of biological role of colostrinin peptides.  Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 17(3):379-389  (2001).  PRP (colostrinin) is a potent inducer of leukocyte proliferation and of certain cytokines.

PubMed Reference    PMID:11859934


Krylov A, Bogdanenko E, Bogush T, Zhdanov R.  The effects of Proline Rich Polypeptide Colostrum Extract treatment on wound healing in a murine skin injury model and assessment of its anti-allergic properties on system anaphylaxis in guinea pigs.  Fourth International Conference on Mechanisms of Action of Nutraceuticals, Tel Aviv, Israel (2007).  In an experimental study done on mice, two wounds were made on the dorsal side of the mice.  In one group, one wound was treated with a PRP preparation and the other with distilled water.  In the other group, one wound was treated with distilled water, and the other was not treated.  The PRP extract improved wound healing about 22% better compared to the control group.  Results were similar to the effect of epidermal growth factor on healing.

Kubis A, Marcinkowska E, Janusz M, Lisowski J. Studies on the mechanism of action of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP): effect on the stage of cell differentiation.  Peptides 26(11):2188-2792 (2005).  PRP affects the differentiation and maturation of cells of the monocyte/ macrophage lineage and may regulate in this way the inflammatory processes in which these cells participate.

PubMed Reference    PMID:15904991


Leszek J, Inglot AD, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Krukowska K, Georgiades JA. Colostrinin: a Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) Complex Isolated from Ovine Colostrum for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. A Double - Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. 47(6):377-385 (1999). PRP, derived from colostrum, has shown promise in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, plus it is a very safe drug.

PubMed Reference    PMID:10608295


Lisowski J, Wieczorek Z, Janusz M, Zimecki M.  Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) from ovine colostrum. Bi-directional modulation of binding of peanut agglutinin, resistance to hydrocortisone, and helper activity in murine thymocytes.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 36(4):381-393 (1988).  PRP has a regulatory effect on the immune response.  It can cause bi-directional modulation of surface markers and function on T cells from mice.  It can reduce binding of peanut agglutinin to PNA+ T cells and increase the binding of peanut agglutinin to PNA- cells.  This effect can be reversed by a second application of PRP.  It is also able to transform cortisone-resistant T cells to cortisone-sensitive cells and vice versa.  Helper T cells initially treated with PRP became helper cells but were transformed into suppressor T cells following a second treatment.  This kind of immunoregulatory activity is unique among known immunoregulators.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2977937


McMeeking A, Borkowsky W, Klesius PH, Bonk S, Holzman RS, Lawrence HS. A controlled trial of bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract for cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS.  Journal of Infectious Diseases 161(1):108-112 (1990).  A trial using bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (PRPs) in AIDS patients suffering from cryptosporidial diarrhea was promising with 6 of 7 patients showing improvement or complete elimination of symptoms and oocytes.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2404072


Meduri R, Campos E, Scorolli L, De Vinci C, Pizza G, Viza D.   Efficacy of transfer factor in treating patients with recurrent ocular herpes infections.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):61-66 (1996).  Herpes-specific transfer factor (PRP) significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response to viral antigens in patients with recurrent ocular herpes infections, and significantly reduced relapses.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993759


Mikulska JE, Lisowski J. A proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) from ovine colostrum. Studies on the effect of PRP on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS in THP-1 cells. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 25(4):645-654 (2003). Microglial cells in the brain are related to amyloid beta internalization, the release of inflammatory cytokines, overproduction of nitrogen oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2-), and the development of plaques in Alzheimer's disease. PRP regulates the production of cytokines in these cells and inhibits NO and O2- production.

PubMed Reference    PMID:14686804


Nitsch A, Nitsch FP. Clinical Use of Bovine Colostrum.  Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 13(2) (1998).  Low molecular weight components of colostrum (PRPs) were used in a clinical study for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with promising results.

Orzechowska B, Janusz M, Domaraczenko B, Blach-Olszewska Z. Antiviral effect of proline-rich polypeptide in murine resident peritoneal cells.  Acta Virologica 42(2):75-78 (1998).  It is known that resident peritoneal (RP) cells from BALB/c female mice express a constitutive non-specific antiviral immunity which is progressively reduced during several days of cultivation in vitro. In this report, we have studied the effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) isolated from ovine colostrum on the kinetics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication in freshly isolated and one-day cultured RP cells. The polypeptide was added to the cells immediately after virus adsorption or one day before or after viral infection. Independently on time of PRP addition, an inhibition of VSV replication (virus titres reduced by up to 4 log units) was observed.

PubMed Reference    PMID:9770073


Pizza G, Meduri R, De Vinci C, Scorolli L, Viza D.   Transfer factor prevents relapses in herpes keratitis patients: a pilot study.  Biotherapy 8(1):63-68 (1994).  Use of HSV-specific transfer factor (PRP) reduced relapses in herpes ocular infections from 20.1 to 0.51.

PubMed Reference    PMID:7547082


Pizza, G, Chiodo, F, Colangeli, V, Gritti, F, Raise, E, Fudenberg, HH, De Vinci, C, Viza, D.  Preliminary observations using HIV-specific transfer factor in AIDS.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):4-47 (1996).  25 HIV infected patients at various stages (CDC stages II-IV) were treated with HIV-specific transfer factor (PRP) for periods of 60-1870 days.  All patients were receiving antiviral treatment as well.  Clinical improvement or a stabilized clinical condition was observed in 20 of the 25, and 12 of 14 anergic patients showed restored delayed hypersensitivity reactions to recall antigens within 60 days.  Treatment was well-tolerated and appears beneficial to AIDS patients.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993756


Pizza G, Viza D, De Vinci C, Palareti A, Cuzzocrea D, Fornarola V, Baricordi R. Orally administered HSV-specific transfer factor (TF) prevents genital or labial herpes relapses.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):67-72 (1996).  Patients with genital or labial herpes received HSV-specific transfer factor (PRP) over a course of 6 months.  Controls experienced a relapse index (RI) of 61.2 while those in the experimental group had an RI of 21.4.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993760


Pizza G, Amadori M, Ablashi D, De Vinci C, Viza D. Cell mediated immunity to meet the avian influenza A (H5N1) challenge.  Medical Hypotheses 67(3):601-8 (2006).  As no vaccine can be made ahead of time for a possible bird flu pandemic, cell mediated immunity via specific transfer factor (PRP) may be useful for both the prevention and treatment of infection.

PubMed Reference    PMID:16603322


Prasad U, bin Jalaludin MA, Rajadurai P, Pizza G, De Vinci C, Viza D, Levine PH.  Transfer factor with anti-EBV activity as an adjuvant therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pilot study.  Biotherapy 9(1-3):109-115 (1996).  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has an unsatisfactory overall survival rate.  An association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and NPC has been made, so it was hypothesized that anti-EBV transfer factor (PRP) might be used as an adjuvant treatment.  The survival rate of NPC patients receiving anti-EBV transfer factor was found to be significantly better than the control group.  Although the number of cases in the study was small, adjuvant immunotherapy with anti-EBV transfer factor is of considerable interest.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993768


Raise E, Guerra L, Viza D, Pizza G, De Vinci C, Schiattone ML, Rocaccio L, Cicognani M, Gritti F. Preliminary results in HIV-1-infected patients treated with transfer factor (TF) and zidovudine (ZDV).  Biotherapy 9(1-3):49-54 (1996).  HIV-1 specific transfer factor (an alternative name for PRP) plus zidovudine (ZDV) was tested for efficacy in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC).  Patients receiving both transfer factor and ZDV experienced an increase in white blood cells, CD8+ lymphocytes and IL-2 levels over those receiving ZDV alone.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8993757


Rona ZP. Bovine Colostrum Emerges as Immunity Modulator. American Journal of Natural Medicine March, 1998.
ABSTRACT: PRP from colostrum can work as a regulatory substance of the thymus gland. It has been demonstrated to improve or eliminate symptomology of both allergies and autoimmune diseases (MS, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and myasthenia gravis). PRP inhibits the overproduction of lymphocytes and T-cells and reduces the major symptoms of allergies and autoimmune disease: pain, swelling, and inflammation.

See DM, Gurnee K, LeClair M.  An In Vitro Screening Study of 196 Natural Products for Toxicity and Efficacy.  Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association 2(1):25-39 (1999).  A comparative study of 196 natural products showed that many demonstrated toxicity and cytochrome p450 activity (indicative of liver toxicity) while having little or no beneficial action.  Some natural products, including Echinacea, and glyconutrient-containing products, showed the highest degree of NK cell stimulation.  Bovine colostrum showed significant enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity.

See DM.  Transfer Factor testing – transfer factor study with 20 cancer patients.  20 cancer patients (levels 3 and 4) with average life expectancy of 3.7 months received 9 capsules of Transfer Factor Plus along with other general nutrients.  After 8 months, 16 of the 20 were still alive and were either in remission, improving or stabilized.  Baseline for NK cell activity was 6.4.  After 4 weeks, it increased to 25.7 and after 6 months to 27.6, an increase of 400%.

http://institutelongevitymedicine.blogspot.com/2008/04/20-cancer-patients-study.html


See D, Mason S, Roshan R.  Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and natural killer cell (NK) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancers.  Immunological Investigations 31(2):137-153 (2002).  A combination of natural products was shown to increase the cytotoxicity of NK cell TNF-a while decreasing DNA damage in patients with late-stage cancer.  20 patients with stage IV end-stage cancer were evaluated using Transfer Factor Plus (3 tabs 3 times/day), IMU-Plus (40 gm/day), IV (50-100 gm/day) and oral (12 gm/day) ascorbic acid, Agaricus Blazeii Murill teas 10 gm/day), Immune Modulator Mix, nitrogenated soy extract, and Andrographis Paniculata (500 mg twice daily).  The 16 survivors of the study showed significantly higher NK function and TNF-a levels over baseline.  Side effects were limited to occasional diarrhea and nausea, while quality of life improved for all survivors over the six month period of the study.

http://www.informaworld.com/10.1081/IMM-120004804


Staroscik K, Janusz M, Zimecki M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J. Immunologically active nonapeptide fragment of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: amino acid sequence and immuno-regulatory properties. Molecular Immunology 20(12):1277-1282 (1983). Small peptide chains in colostrum called proline-rich polypeptides (PRP) have the same ability to regulate the activity of the immune system as the hormones of the thymus gland.  PRP activates an underactive immune system, helping it move into action against disease-causing organisms.  PRP also suppresses an overactive immune system such as is often seen in the autoimmune diseases. PRP is highly anti-inflammatory and also appears to act on T-cell precursors to produce helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID:6656774


Wieczorek Z, Zimecki M, Janusz M, Staroscik K, Lisowski J. Proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: its effect on skin permeability and on the immune system. Immunology. 36(4):879-881 (1979) . PRP has a regulatory activity stimulating the immune response.

PubMed Reference    PMID:437850


Wieczorek Z, Zimecki M, Spiegel K, Lisowski J, Janusz M. Differentiation of T cells into helper cells from immature precursors: identification of a target cell for a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP). Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 37(3-4):313-322 (1989).  The precursors of helper T cells belong to a minor thymocyte subset bearing the Thy-1 +/-, H-2+, L3T4-, lyt 2-, CD3- phenotype.  PRP induced the production of antigens consistent with mature helper T cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2534785


Zablocka A, Janusz M, Rybka K, Wirkus-Romanowska I, Kupryszewski G, Lisowski J. Cytokine-inducing activity of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) from ovine colostrum and its active nonapeptide fragment analogs.  European Cytokine Network 12(3):462-467 (2001).  PRP induces the production of INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in human whole blood cultures.

PubMed Reference    PMID:11566627


Zimecki M, Janusz M, Staroscik K, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J.  Immunological activity of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 26(1-6):23-29 (1978).  PRP increased the permeability of blood vessels in the skin and also stimulates or suppresses the immune response depending on the magnitude of the response.

PubMed Reference    PMID:749775


Zimecki M, Staroscik K, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Wieczorek Z.   The inhibitory activity of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the immune response to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 31(6):895-903 (1983).  PRP administered to a test animal before immunization with PVP inhibits the immune response to this antigen.  PRP did this by increasing the activity of suppressor T cells and by increasing the generation of new suppressor T cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID:6234865


Zimecki M, Lisowski J, Hraba T, Wieczorek Z, Janusz M, Staroscik K. The effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the humoral immune response. I. Distinct effect of PRP on the T cell properties of mouse glass-nonadherent (NAT) and glass-adherent (GAT) thymocytes in thymectomized mice. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 32(2):191-196 (1984).  Glass-nonadherent thymocytes are a precursor of helper T cells, and glass-adherent thymocytes are a precursor of suppressor T cells.  PRP causes each of these cell types to develop into their lymphocyte types.

PubMed Reference    PMID:6333228


Zimecki M, Lisowski J, Hraba T, Wieczorek Z, Janusz M, Staroscik K. The effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the humoral immune response. II. PRP induces differentiation of helper cells from glass-nonadherent thymocytes (NAT) and suppressor cells from glass-adherent thymocytes (GAT). Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 32(2):197-201 (1984).  PRP induces differentiation of both helper and suppressor T cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID:6237628


Zimecki M, Pierce CW, Janusz M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J.   Proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP): PRP mimics mitogenic activity of Il-1.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 35(3):339-349 (1987).  PRP had the same mitogenic effect on T cells as interleukin-1, inducing proliferation of non-antigen specific T cells.

PubMed Reference    PMID:3502239


Zimecki M, Hraba T, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Wieczorek Z.  Effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the development of hemolytic anemia and survival of New Zealand black (NZB) mice.  Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 39(5-6):461-467 (1991). When PRP was given to New Zealand Black mice showing signs of hemolytic anemia, it significantly lowered the incidence of positive Coombs' reaction and prolonged the mean age of the mice.  Hemolytic anemia is an autoimmune disease in these mice, indicating that PRP may have therapeutic value in the treatment of autoimmune disorders in humans.

PubMed Reference    PMID:1841543


Zimecki M, Artym J.  [Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk] Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej 59:309-323 (2005).  Colostrum and milk are rich in peptides and proteins which play an active role in innate immunity.  Lactoferrin has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and antitumor activities.  It helps protect the intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth, and accelerates the recovery of immune system function in immunocompromised animals.  PRP has a variety of immunotropic functions, including the promotion of T cell maturation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders.

PubMed Reference    PMID:15995598


Zimecki M. A proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: colostrinin with immunomodulatory activity.  Advances in Experimental and Medical Biology 606:241-250 (2008).  PRP are immunomodulatory peptides from colostrum that promote T cell maturation from early thymic precursors into mature helper cells or mature suppressor cells.  They suppressed autoimmune hemolytic anemia in New Zealand black mice.  PRP modulate cytokine production in blood.  PRP has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by delaying the progress of the disease.

PubMed Reference    PMID:18183932